Knock-in Rat Model, Conditional Knock-Out Rat Model
For decades, mice have been the major transgenic in vivo model for gene function studies and drug discovery. Their low maintenance cost and easy manipulation made them a preferred tool for pre-clinical research. However, there is still a significant void in animal models required for specific research purposes which the mouse models have been unable to fill. As the need for a better understanding of human genetics has grown, there has been an increased demand for improved transgenic animal models.
Rat models are making a comeback as a preferred in vivo model for researchers who seek a better representation of human genetics and physiology.
Why do we need transgenic rat models?
- Mouse models are not always reliable in preclinical studies and have several limitations for modeling human diseases
- Rats were once the most widely used animal models in biomedical research until they were displaced by the transgenic mouse about 30 years ago.
- The metabolosm, physiology and pathology of rats are closer to human than mice
- Larger size of rats allows for sophisticated surgeries, instrumentation and manipulations
- Better behavioral models for cognition and memory, neurological and psychological assays and drug screening
- Superior model for cardiovascular diseases (storke and hypertension), autoimmune disoirders, diabetes, breast cancer, and autoimmune disoirders
The successful isolation of rat embryonic stem cells (rES) and complimenting accomplishments in site-directed mutagenesis using techniques such as TARGATTTM, CRISPR/Cas9, ZFNs and TALENs have made the generation of transgenic rat models possible.
Comparison of trangenic technologies
Applied StemCell utilizes Cas9-CRISPR service to generate rat models that contain point mutation(s), small reporter insertions and conditional knockout.
TARGATT™ Site-Specific Knock-in Rat (H11) allows site specific large fragment gene insertion in Sprague-Dawley rat models.
Generate knock-in and conditional knock-in rat models using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) for large modifications of the genome.