Teratoma Formation Analysis

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  • Description
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Service to confirm pluripotency of human and mouse ESC and iPSC lines by Teratoma Formation Analysis after injection of cells into an animal.


  • Turnaround time: 4 weeks (Mouse), 7 weeks (Human)
  • Number of cells required / injection site: Mouse ESCs/iPSCs = 0.5 x 10^6,  Human ESCs/iPSCs =  1 x 10^6
  • Enhanced experimental protocol: Injection under both the kidney capsule and in testis results in higher efficiency of distinct teratoma formations with differentiated tissues derived from all three germ layers.

Service Includes:

  • Comprehensive report with histological analysis and high resolution publication-grade images of endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm formation.
  • Tissue blocks and H&E stained tissue section slides


  • Frozen sample culture Fee $895 per line (No fee for fresh cells)
  • Pathogen tests (please provide mycoplasma test result showing negative; otherwise additional testing fee will be required.) 
  • Kidney capsule tumor and testis tumor from each mouse will be embedded in one block. Separate blocks are available upon request with additional fee.
  • Frozen tissue blocks are available with additional fee.


Technical Details:

  • Experimental setup: A total of 4 mice (3 experimental and 1 control) will be used.
  • Injection site: Each recipient mouse will be injected at two locations: in the kidney capsule and in the testis.
  • Service includes: Cell injection, teratoma harvesting, tissue preparation (embedding and sectioning), H&E staining and histology analysis of teratoma tissue sections.


High Teratoma Formation Rate:


Published reports of ASC's Teratoma Formation Analysis Reports can be found in the Certificate of Analysis "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)" by Coriell Institute for Medical Research.


  1.  Zhang WY, Teratoma formation: A tool for monitoring pluripotency in stem cell research. StemBook.
  2.  Valamehr B (2012) SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 2: 213
  3.  K. Chen et al., Stem Cell Research USA. 9, 237–248 (2012)
  4.  Telugu BPVL (2011) JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 286:28948-28953
  5.  Deleidi M (2011) Stem Cells 29: 1052–1063
  6.  Cooper O (2012) Sci Transl Med. 4(141):141ra90
  7.  Zheng Z (2012) Biomaterials 33: 5821-5831
  8.  Almeida S (2012) Cell Report 2: 789-798

Applied StemCell (ASC) offers several iPSC characterization services, so you can fully characterize your iPSCs to confidently move your research forward. If you do not see what you are looking for, contact us today to speak with one of our experts.